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Histrory of Deoghar District

The district of Deoghar, a part of Jharkhand state, was created on 01.06.1983. Before this, Deoghar was a sub-division of Santhal Pargana district. The district head quarter is located in Deoghar town.

Early History

Santhal Pargana District was created in 1885 after partition of Bhagalpur and Birbhum. An important reason behind the creation of Santhal Pargana was Santhal Mutiny in 1854-55.

According to Allahabad Treaty signed with Sah Alam II in A.D. 1765, the Area of Santhal Pargana, Hazaribag District, Munger District and Bhagalpur District were known as Tarai Jungle. After excavation in this area, stone weapons and the statue of Soldier with helmet made of celt were found. This clearly indicates human beings had started living here since stone age. This Celt has been found in Malay Peninsula and Chhotanagpur Area.

Man and Munda were among the primitives of this area. These people might have come from Burma via Assam and had started living in Santhal Pargana. A little information about this area has been obtained from the seventh Century A.D. Chinese Traveller Huen Tsang, who had a mention about this district. Huen Tsang visited India in A.D. 645. He has mentioned about Tailiyagarhi Fort in his Travellogue. He has written that Lofty Brick and Stone Tower were built beside Ganges.

Cuningham, in his Ancient Indian Geography (1871) has stated that this might have been the House of Buddhists and this was beside the river Ganges. This is not at all surprising that the area of Santhal Pargana has remained a very important place from Religious point of view. Bhavishyat Puran which was written in 15th to 16th Century AD, has a mention of the Temple of Lord Baidyanath in Deoghar.

Medieval Period

The History of the Santhal Pargana is found from 13th Century A.D. From that time Tailiyagarhi had become an entrance door for muslim soldiers. They used to travel to & fro from Bengal to Taliyagarhi.

During the rule of Slave Dynasty in Delhi, Ityarudeen Bin Bukhtiar Khiljee had visited Assam and Bengal enroute Tailiyagarhi, Son of Laxman, the King of Cooch Bihar fled from Cooch Bihar and came to Deoghar in the year 1201 A.D. and established his capital here.

British Period

After the defeat of Nawab Sirajudaula of Bengal in Battle of Palssy in the year 1757, the British rule came into existence.

After this battle, the British reigned over Bengal. Deoghar (Santhal Pargana) was under Bengal at that time. Thus the rule of British started in this area.

Tribal people of this area were freedom minded. They were not tolerant to any aggressor of their Motherland. The British were against any restrictions upon these tribal people. But these tribals were too much against British.

In 1819, the British wanted to announce Santhal Pargana as its Territory. This hilly area belonged to these tribal. They wanted to take welfare measures for these tribal people so that the Tribals would not go against them. For this, the British demarcated the area and gave it a Persian name Daminico (Area between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal) .The meaning of Daminico is Hilly Skirt. Mr. Potent was made Deputy Collector of this area is the year A.D. 1837.

Santhal Mutiny

The root cause of the Santhal Mutiny was to get rid of deteriorating economical condition. The first fire was ignited in Littipara.

Kinaram Bhagat was a prime Businessman of Amarpada and he was a bad moneylender. When Vijay Manjhi was arrested and sent to Bhagalpur jail, the dispute increased since he died in Jail without a hearing of his case. His son Singram led the protest and he was hanged in Barhait Bazaar after a simple hearing. The Santhals were very sad and angry over this incident and the rebellion started, whose main victims were money lenders and landlords.

The British took this mutiny as a challenge. To crush the Santhals, the British engaged its soldiers. But the Santhals courageously defended against them.

The first battle against the British was held at Payalpur in Bhagalpur on 16th July 1855. The Santhals bravely faced the guns of the British. But instead of suppression, the rebellion spread to other areas like Deoghar, Dumka, Godda, Sahibganj, Hazaribag, Birbhum and Bankura Districts of Bengal. The British tried to arrest the Santhals to save the Dikus (meaning outsiders), because the Santhals considered the Dikus as their enemies. The British deployed large numbers of soldiers in these areas. Lots of cruelties were meted upon the Santhals. Marshal Law was declared in 1855. The British were able to suppress this mutiny.

The Santhals showed exemplary courage in fighting against the British, despite being beaten and harassed . The British knew it well that if they want to rule in the area they have to agree to the main demands of the Santhals and accord them the dignity due to them. Therefore, in the year 1855 A.D., according to act 37, the District of Santhal Pargana was created after the name of the tribals. Efforts were made to fulfill their demands. They were given their motherland so that they feel secured.

First war of Independence 1857

The effects of the first war of Independence fell in Santhal Pargana. There was a rebellion in the 5th Irregular Cavallary of Army in Rohini. Adjutant Sir Sermon Lesslie of the Regiment was murdered in June 1857. In this mutiny Commandant Major McDonald and Dr. Grant were injured.

On 16th July at Joradih Rohini, Amanat Ali, Salamat Ali and Seikh Haroon were hanged from a tree for taking part in the Mutiny. It spread to the 5th Battalion of Bhagalpur. They came to Rohini and joined the Mutiny.

They marched to Bounsi where 32 Motive infantry was existing. But from some source their movement was disclosed to the British Officers. This was a big jolt to the efforts of the mutineers. Thereafter there was no further escalation of the trouble in Santhal Pargana.

The Freedom Struggle

Deoghar District did not remain untouched in anyway from the wave of patriotism. It contributed significantly to the freedom struggle. The Indian National Congress announced protest against Simon Commission and called for its boycott. Its effect was felt all over India. Even the Jungles and Hills of Deoghar did not remain untouched. People of Deoghar participated in the Salt Satyagraha and the Civil Disobedience Movement. There was a boycott of foreign liquor and cloths.

The Quit India movement of 1942 brought color to the struggle in Deoghar. On 11th August 1942, a procession was taken out and a strike was observed in Deoghar.

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